Secondary metabolites, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts of Acacia rigidula benth. and Acacia berlandieri benth.

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SN Applied Sciences


The use of plants as sources for novel antimicrobial as well as antioxidant agents offers advantages. Plants are readily accessible and inexpensive, extracts or compounds from plant sources often demonstrate high level of biological activities. Previous studies have reported antibacterial and antifungal activities within the Fabaceae family that included Acacia species. This study aims to determine presence of antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, and the secondary metabolites of sequential solvent extracts (acetone, methanol, and acetic acid) of Acacia berlandieri and Acacia rigidula leaves. The antibacterial activity was investigated using a disc diffusion assay. The ferric thiocyanate method was used to assess the ability of all extracts to prevent oxidation. Qualitative phytochemical tests, NMR, IR, and UV–Vis spectroscopy were done to identify potential secondary metabolites. P. alcalifaciens (p < 0.001), E. faecalis (p < 0.01), S. aureus (p < 0.001), and Y. enterocolitica (p < 0.001) were significantly inhibited by A. rigidula extracts when compared to A. berlandieri extracts. A. rigidula’s acetone extract exhibited the significantly (p < 0.001) highest inhibition of peroxidation, 42%. Qualitative phytochemical tests showed positive results for presence of phenols, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and tannins. NMR, IR, and UV–Vis spectroscopy revealed chemical structures found in flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and tannins, supporting the results of qualitative phytochemical tests. A. berlandieri and A. rigidula leaf extracts have revealed presence of medicinally valued bioactive components. The results of this study provide a basis for further investigations of the A. rigidula leaf extracts. A. rigidula leaf extracts have the potential to serve as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]



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